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Para-toluenesulfonamide, a novel potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, improves hypoxia-induced metas

作者:Hsin-Yuan Chen, Chia-En Lin, Shun-Chi Wu, Zong-Yu

Overexpression of the hypoxia-induced transmembrane enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) has been associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in aggressive breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of CA9 in the anti-tumor activity of para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) and elucidate its mechanism of action against breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with PTS or subjected to hypoxic conditions using cobalt chloride (CoCl2), with acetazolamide serving as a positive control. Additionally, 4T1 breast cancer cell allograft mice were co-treated with PTS and α-programmed cell death 1 (αPD-1) monoclonal antibody for one month. The results demonstrated that PTS effectively reduced cell viability and reversed migration ability in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxia. Furthermore, PTS upregulated the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and downregulated CA9, hypoxiainducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins, possibly through modulation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylated proteins. In the animal model, PTS100 inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in mammary tumor allograft mice, exhibiting synergistic effects when combined with αPD-1 therapy. Collectively, our findings suggest that PTS inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through the p38 MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. Moreover, PTS may have the potential to prevent the development of resistance to αPD- 1 therapy in breast cancer.


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